Belonging to the ground beetle family (Carabidae) with over two thousand five hundred species Australia wide these beetles are carnivorous and hunt on the ground or in trees. Their larvae feed on other insects. When threatened the Bombardier Beetle uses a special gland at its rear to mix together two chemicals, resulting in an explosion with a loud popping noise and an accompanying sizzle of spray and steam with temperatures over 100 degrees Celsius in the gland. Up to 80 explosions may be produced over a four minute period.
I.D. and reference courtesy of Martyn Robinson and Yvette Simpson. Australian Museum.
Further reading: http://australianmuseum.net.au/Bombardier-Beetle/
To the east of Sportsman Creek Conservation Area lies the Yuraygir National Park being the last refuge for the Coastal Emu now numbering less than 100 individuals. Once in abundance the local population has been in steady decline over the past twenty years as a result of habitat loss, fires during breeding season, predation by foxes and wild dogs and collisions with vehicles. Populations of the Coastal Emu which are isolated from their inland relatives now only exist between Evans Head and south to Red Rock. Yuraygir National Park south of the Clarence River is home to one of three distinct sub-populations in this region. The Coastal Emu has recently been listed as an Endangered Population and has disappeared from Red Rock and Iluka.
Click images to enlarge.
“Of five known species in this genus at present, all of them restricted to Eastern Australia. This species is usually found in wet forested situations like Antarctic Beech forest, wet sclerophyll forest and rainforest.” Recent floods have expanded the breeding territory for this large frog and was discovered in a dam under Open Eucalypt woodland on the Conservation Area.
M. fasciolatus has a deep, harsh “wark” call and can grow to 90 mm. The tadpole in the image measured 110 mm.
Reference and I.D. courtesy of Martyn Robinson. Naturalist. Australian Museum.
Also called the Parrot’s Beak Orchid. This terrestrial herb species is common in moist areas of dry sclerophyll forest, wet sclerophyll forest and coastal scrub. Flowering June to September from a leafless stem usually 15-20cm and sometimes found in dense colonies. A new species for the Conservation Area.
I.D. and reference courtesy of Denis Wilson.
” These frogs are a variable species and can appear as either light brown or dark brown between night and day. They can be found well away from water, ranging through all types of forest and open country. This frog reaches 40mm.”
I.D. and reference courtesy of Martyn Robinson. Naturalist- Search and Discover.
Small family groups live in the grasses and thickets and along the watercourses of the Conservation Area. Image of a male bird courtesy of visiting Wildlife photographer Rowley Willis.
Attractive medium-sized hunting hawk with dark bars across a white belly and flanks. Uncommon across the North and North-east of Australia and rare in New South Wales.
Image courtesy of visiting Wildlife photographer Rowley Willis.
Water Scorpion grow to over 50mm long they can extend the tube on their backs out of the water to breathe air like a snorkel while swimming. They can ambush fast swimming prey such as small fish catching them between their front legs and stabbing them with their pointed probiscus. Known as Toe-biters able to inflict a nasty nip although this specimen played dead when disturbed. Water Scorpions are also capable fliers and inhabit waterholes over much of Australia.
” A beetle not a bug. It is certainly one of the diving beetles in the family Dytigcidae, but there are a few black and yellow genera and species. This beetle could be in the genera Megaporus or Sternopriscus.” Found in the dam feeding on small aquatic organisms.
“Also known as Verreaux’s Burrowing Skink or the Three Clawed Worm Skink. The best diagnostic feature for this lizard is the pale collar, clearly visible on this specimen, which helps distinguish it from (Coeranoscincus reticulatus) the Three-toed Snake-tooth Skink.” These lizards live in loose soil, leaf litter and rotting logs feeding on earthworms and beetles. Because of its burrowing habits it is seldom seen and a new species for the Conservation Area.
I.D. courtesy of Martyn Robinson. Naturalist Australian Museum.
“Many of the Pseudophryne toadlets are disappearing over much of their range although this species is not listed as threatened or endangered.” With a length between 30mm -60mm, no webbing and striking marbled belly. This toadlet is alive and pretending to be dead.
I.D courtesy of Martyn Robinson Naturalist. Australian Museum.
“Although widespread and found in a variety of habitats, particularly around temporary swamps this frog is not common. Also known as the Freycinet Frog they reach 45mm and are similar to Litoria nasuta, from which it can be distinguished by the thigh pattern of brown and cream spots.” A new species for the Conservation Area and named after L. Freycinet, the French Navigator. They are capable of very long leaps.
“Adult moth has brown forewings with a dark green sheen, and with a sharply defined broad white border along the edges of the wings. The hindwings are orange, with a black border and black comma in the middle. The moth has a wingspan of about 8cm.” A new sighting for the Conservation Area with the common name Green Fruit-piercing Moth.
I.D. and text reference courtesy of Don Herbison-Evans and Stella Crossley.
Further reference – http://lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/cato/salamin.html
“The adults have a wingspan around 7cm. It is famous for its shiny metallic pupa and beautiful caterpillar with eight long black tentacles. It seems to be a species that prefers a tropical climate, but does breed in N.S.W. It has a lifespan of eleven to thirteen weeks.” A new species for the Conservation Area. This butterfly is famous for its striking pupa, click reference below for more images.
I.D. and text reference courtesy of Don Herbison-Evans and Stella Crossley.
Further reference -http://lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/nymp/core.html
A new educational resource providing details of over 300 significant species that can be found growing in the Clarence Valley is now available at the Clarence Environment Centre (CEC) for $7. each. The DVD provides a PDF fact sheet for each species with a photograph or image and provides scientific and common names, family name, protected status, a brief description, localities and range of occurence and threats faced.
Contact – Clarence Environment Centre. 31 Skinner St. South Grafton. N.S.W. 2460.
The peer-reviewed quarterly journal Systematics and Biodiversity recently published the report – Perspectives. Colour and size variation in Junonia villida ( Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae ) : subspecies or phenotypic plasticity ? by R.I. Vane-Wright and W. John Tennant.
The review was based on” examination of c.1500 museum specimens from its entire geographical range from the Chagos Islands in the Indian Ocean to the Gambiers in mid-Pacific, spanning over 154 degrees of longitude, or 43% of the circumference of the Earth. Mostly found in open grasslands or disturbed areas, including woodlands and disturbed forests from sea-level up to 1500m or more in elevation, it is variable in wing colour pattern on both upper and lower surfaces. The causes of this variability are uncertain, but temperature, photoperiod, rainfall, migration and perhaps underlying geographical differentiation may all play a role.”
The Clarence Valley Meadow Argus butterfly is represented by the image on lower right side taken on the Conservation Area for the cover illustration showing six Australian butterfly with various differences in colour pattern.
Further reference available; http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tsab20/current
The boletes are closely related to the agarics (fungi with gills). Many boletes display colour changes when the flesh is cut, so that whitish or yellowish tissue becomes spectacularly greenish blue due to enzyme reactions triggered by oxygen in the air. Boletes are very important in the Australian bushland as mycorrhizal partners, but they also provide food for the larval stages of many insects.” Image taken in riparian zone at Sportsman Creek wildlife refuge.
Reference; Young, A.M. Field Guide to the Fungi of Australia.
I.D. courtesy of Don Gover.
Further reference; www.sydneyfungalstudies.org.au
A small population of these fantastic little marsupials reside in the Dry schlerophyll forest ( Spotted Gum, Ironbarks and Bloodwood) on Sportsman Creek wildlife refuge. They are classified as Vulnerable and are patchily distributed from Cooktown to the Northern rivers area. They have largely vanished from inland areas. When alarmed they stamp their hindfeet on the ground and are known to use their tails to carry nesting materials. Image taken today in the Conservation Area of this secretive marsupial.
Reference; DECC. Threatened Species of the Upper North Coast.
Olongburra Frogs are listed as Vulnerable and range from coastal areas near Fraser Island to Yuraygir National Park south-east of Grafton. Also called Wallum Sedge Frogs. Wallum is a banksia -dominated lowland heath ecosystem characterised by acidic waterbodies. An unexpected find at Sportsman Creek wildlife refuge. These frogs are usually found in rushes and sedges. “If you look at the colour in the groin or back of the thigh it is relatively easy as Litoria olongburensis has a bluish colour there while it is orange in both Litoria fallax and Litoria bicolour. The overhanging pointed snout in Litoria olongburensis is usually more pronounced – but then the broad white stripe down the side of the body is NOT a feature of Litoria fallax as this tends to end around the shoulder in that species.”
Reference; N.P.W.S. Threatened Species of the Upper North Coast of N.S.W.
“The Garden Orb-weaver is one of the largest and most common spiders in eastern Australia. Adults spin web at dusk , feeding on a wide range of flying insects. The web is often eaten by the spider at dawn and a new web constructed the following night. Bites are rare, causing only local symptoms such as mild pain and swelling”. During the day they take shelter in bark and leaves.
Reference; Honan, P. A Wild Australia Guide – Spiders.
“A large, plump grey and white pigeon with distinctive markings. Forages on ground, not often seen in flight unless flushed. Sedentary; uncommon, although can be locally abundant in areas of favourable habitat. Lives around the riverine vegetation on Sportsman Creek wildlife refuge.
Reference; Morcombe, M. Field Guide to Australian Birds.
According to Australian Museum Entomologist, Dr. Britton this species occurs as far south as central New South Wales and is also found in S.E. Asia, Indonesia and P.N.G. Adults are known to be fruit-piercing moths. Other species in S.E. Asia are known as “Vampire Moths” as some are known to feed on vertebrates and suck the blood of mammals.
Further reading available- http://lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/cato/minuticornis.html
courtesy of Don Herbison-Evans